RC101: Motor timing explained

on September 22, 2020
Gary Karamikian, CEO at GK Systems inc helps explains how Motor timing works.  Let's learn from the best. 
I have a lot of people ask me about what to do with Timing so let me help you understand how a 2 pole brushless motor works 

First, we need to know that there is a maximum that is possible, and any more than that actually will fight the motor.

There is a maximum possibility of only 60 deg of timing per phase. On a 2 pole brushless motor. And for reasons I will explain, we should not even try to go that high.

So let me explain, 3 phases A, B, C  & 2 poles on the rotor N & S.  So for 1 revolution (360 deg) there will be an A, B, C event for both North and South poles of the Rotor
So 6 total events in 360 deg of rotation
360/6 = 60

60 deg is the maximum degrees possible for each event 

Now take some transport delay and you are under 60 deg of revolution possible.

So really anything above 50 is dangerous 

Why is this important?

Because any timing on the end bell has to be taken into account when adding boost and turbo. 

Some manufacturers may have a safety limit in place others may not, but why take the chance and damage your motor and ESC. Not to mention trying to operate in a range that is not very effective or efficient.

I think it helps to know how things work when you try to modify/tune them.

Who is Gary? 
Gary's firm focuses on electrification and the implementation of brushless motors in many different platforms from robotics to passenger cars.

His work in Hybrid electric systems has been used in the highest form of motorsport and can be found in Championship winning race cars all over the world, including the winner of the 24hrs of LeMans, the biggest race in the world. Brushless motor control is not only used for powering the vehicle but also used in stability control and performance-enhancing torque vectoring of the driven wheels.

Highlights / Achievements

  • Winner of the 2012 24 Hrs. Of Le Mans In LMP2. With Starworks Motorsport
  • Winner of the 2017 Detroit Grand Prix and first-ever win for the Acura NSX GT3 race car
  • Winner of the 2017 6 Hrs. of the Glen and first-ever Endurance championship round win for the Acura NSX GT3 race car
  • Pole position and First ever Pole for the Acura NSX GT3 Race Car
  • Winner 2017 Pikes Peak Hill Climb, 2nd overall, New class record set with Realtime Racing
  • Winner of the 2016 Daytona 24 Hrs. (overall & Prototype category)
  • Winner of the 2016 12 Hrs. of Sebring (overall & Prototype category)
  • Winner of the 2016 10 Hrs. Petit LeMans (overall & Prototype category)
  • Winner 2012 ALMS P2 Championship with Level 5 Motorsports
  • Pole Position 2015 Daytona 24 with MSR in the inaugural running of Ligier JSP2 Car· Winner 2016 Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca with MSR Honda Liger JSP2, First win for Liger JSP2 car In North America

Gary can be reached at GK System Racing https://www.facebook.com/GKSystemsRacing/

Blog: Overloading your gears?

By HOBBYWING North America
on April 04, 2019

The most common reason for your ESC / Motor damage is found by "overloading"

It is hard to accurately check the "load of a vehicle system, but there is a simple method.

Measuring the temperature of ESC and motor.

If the ESC temperature (measured from outside at the hottest position) is over 85 degree (for low-cost thermal instrument with low accuracy) or 90 degrees (for high-cost thermal instrument with high accuracy), or the motor temperature is over 90 degree or 100 degree, your system configuration must be changed immediately that a load of vehicle is too heavy for your ESC or motor.

In such a case, change your gearing ratio by using a smaller pinion or bigger spur gear by one.  Check the temp again after running a few laps until you find the perfect ratio.  "Stock gearing" does not mean your system with upgraded electronics works perfectively. 


Any questions, contact us at NorthAmerica@hobbywing.com  We are here to help!




Blog: Attention to Rock Crawlers

on June 01, 2018

"FOC" - What does it mean, and how does it make the HOBBYWING AXE System Better than the rest?

FOC stands for Field Oriented Control and is referring to the reading of the magnetic field of the motor's rotor. FOC's advantage over standard style Hall Sensor setups is the shape of the field reading. FOC allows for reading the field in a true round/circular shape, with out any distortion to the field. This allows extremely precise operation. This shape is crated by sine-wave current through the motor phases. It is not created by motor voltage. This closed loop system allows the motor to maintain the RPM it's being told to run, under any load condition. RPM matching to throttle position allows extremely consistent and accurate throttle inputs.

What does that mean for your truck?

Driving up and down an incline, regardless of the load on the truck, the motor and ESC will do their best to maintain the RPM of the motor, at the throttle position you are using. RPM matches the Throttle position in all conditions.

Check out HOBBYWING's patented AXE system

RC 101 - Starting Tool kit for R/C

By FalconSEKIDO RC Division
on January 13, 2015

It all begins with the tool.  

There are a hand full of sites that offer R/C tools. Mainly they are 10x as expensive because the tools have brand logos. Just want to get a straight forward Snap-on like tool kit? Check out this site. 

Team Integy

Radio Controlled Cars, Parts & Tools Since 1993



Do you know any other good tool kit site?  please share.

R/C 101 - Pinion Gears / FDR

By FalconSEKIDO RC Division
on July 16, 2014

Gear Ratio:

To calculate the car’s gear ratio, you need to be familiar with the type of drivetrain it has. 2WD RC vehicles typically have a single one-speed transmission. 4WD vehicles also usually have a one-speed transmission, and are gear and propeller shaft driven or belt and pulley driven. Multiple speed transmissions can also be calculated for gear ratios, if attention is paid to the things mentioned below.

If the vehicle’s manual didn’t provide a gearing table in its contents, then you’ll have to take apart the transmission to count the number of teeth on each gear and write it down.

Here are the names of the gear you will need to count:

1. Diff Gear (diff pulley for belt drives)
2. Counter Gear (center pulley for belt drives)
The counter gear/ center pulley counts as any component that runs on the same shaft or axis as the spur gear. Note that some shaft driven cars won’t have a counter gear close to the spur; they would be the gears that mesh directly with the diff gears.

Now that the number of teeth on the gears or pulleys have been counted and written down, we can plug the numbers into an easy formula to get the gear ratio of the car’s transmission.

Gear Ratio Calculation:

X = diff gear/ pulley
Y = counter gear/ center pulley
Z = Gear Ratio

X / Y = Z

Gear ratios are typically expressed in Z:1 (2.055:1 for example).

For example, one of my cars has a 36T diff pulley and a 16T center pulley. I should get a gear ratio of 2.25:1

36 / 16 = 2.25

For the sake of simplicity, we’ll use Z above to get the car’s Final Drive Ratio. It’s another simple formula, using the difference between the spur and pinion gear, and getting a product from Z, the car’s gear ratio. Again, count and write down the number of teeth for both the spur and pinion if you don’t know what they are.

Final Drive Ratio: FDR

Spur gear = A
Pinion gear = B
Power output ratio = C

A / B = C

Finally, multiply the power output ratio by Z above, the gear ratio:

C * Z = FDR

The FDR (final drive ratio) is also typically expressed as a :1, or to one ratio (4.75:1 for example).


To calculate the rollout of the car’s gearing, you will need to measure the tire’s diameter in standard inches. Once that’s written down, calculate the circumference of the tire by multiplying it by Pi (3.14). One example would be a tire with a 2.44 inch dia. would have a cir. of 2.44 inches.

Divide the circumference of the tire into the car’s gear ratio, and you will get the potential rollout of the car.

Tire circumference = A
Gear ratio = B
Rollout = C

A / B = C

For example, using the numbers we already have:

2.44/ 2.25 = 1.08

To convert mm to inches, divide the mm by 25.4 (for example, 62mm = 2.44 inches, or 62 / 25.4 = 2.44).

That’s it! I hope these formulas help out. Please leave any comments, problems with the formulas, or questions here.


How to calculate FDR